By Yoshio Sugimoto
This revised version has been up to date to hide advancements within the 5 years because the first variation was once released. Yoshio Sugimoto demanding situations the conventional proposal that Japan is an homogeneous society with few cultural and social disparities.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Japanese Society (2nd Edition)
The legitimation of duality underlying the Japanese vocabulary provides a pretext for corrupt activities. In the ura side of business transactions, for example, Japanese companies use the category of shito fumei kin (expenses unaccounted for) to conceal the identity of the recipient of the expenditure. They can do this as long as they declare those expenses to be subject to taxation. The corporate world uses this method extensively to hide secret payoffs, kickbacks, and political donations. 82 The honne of the participants in these deals is to promote the mutual interests of uchi networks of business and politics.
51 and Watanabe 1997, p. 57. notion that Japan is a highly egalitarian society is palatable for overseas soto consumption, but it does not accurately reflect the uchi reality of Japan’s material and cultural inequality. There is an abundance of data on class in Japan. 7 Government agencies, newspaper organizations, and private research institutions have also published a large amount of quantitative data on the ways in which resources, values, and behavior patterns are distributed among different strata in Japanese society.
As the number of companies designated is normally limited to ten or so, they can easily engage in pre-tender negotiations and come to mutually agreed clandestine deals. 83 The practice rests upon the ura operations of uchi insiders 30 An Introduction to Japanese Society attempting to materialize their honne of profit maximization among themselves. 84 The tatemae and omote justifications of these expenses include the importance of informal contacts and communications. Many important political policy decisions are made by politicians who wine and dine in high class Japanese-style restaurants (called ryo¯tei) where ura-type trading is done behind closed doors.