By B. F. Skinner
The fundamental booklet in regards to the debatable philosophy referred to as behaviorism, written by means of its top exponent.
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43 Interestingly, Egyptian sugar-cane production was a leading global industry and refined sukkar (hence the term ‘sugar’) was extensively exported across much of the world. Islam also harnessed energy through windmills and water-mills, which were deployed for industrial production purposes. Notable too is that the Middle East/North Africa long held a comparative advantage over Europe with respect to both scientific knowledge and military technologies (ch. 8). No less important was the creation of a whole series of capitalist institutions (concerning partnerships, contract law, banking, credit and many others), upon which not only Islamic production, investment and commerce rested but also global trade (ch.
And the Javanese, Indians and Chinese had all made it across to the Cape many decades, if not centuries, before Da Gama. It has no less been forgotten that Da Gama only managed to navigate across to India because he was guided by an unnamed Gujarati Muslim pilot. No less irksome is the point that virtually all of the nautical and navigational technologies and techniques that made Da Gama’s journey possible were invented (and certainly refined further) in either China or the Islamic Middle East.
C o u n t e r i n g t h e e u ro c e n t r i c m y t h 19 But it might be replied that it is reasonable to begin by noting the present situation of an advanced West and a backward East and then exploring the past to ‘reveal’ the factors that made this so. The problem is that in extrapolating retrospectively the notion of a backward East a subtle but erroneous slippage is made: in ‘revealing’ the various blockages that held the East back, Eurocentrism ends up by imputing to the East a permanent ‘iron law of non-development’.