By George F. Chadwick
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Extra info for A Systems View of Planning. Towards a Theory of the Urban and Regional Planning Process
3 . 4 . T h e definition of a system. T h e circles represent a large set of elements (which may be regarded as black boxes). From this set of elements a smaller set, within the bounding line, is selected because of the relevant connections between the elements indicated. T h e arrows crossing the boundary are inputs to or outputs from the system. T h e broken arrows are further possible connections of interest but which are not included within the present definition of the system, (after Van Court Hare, 1 9 6 2 ) .
The example is a first-order difference equation, and more generally, a difference equation of order η is defined as: t, Xt-\) Xt-2 · · · Xt-ny t) ~ 0 A comparison of Mesarovic's definition with that of Hall anc Fagen, and Optner, shows agreement, and the language in which Mesarovic's definition is couched is—naturally—that of set theory and of transformations or functions. If we accept these definitions of system, it is clear that any kind of system is potentially capable of mathematical representation, using set theory.
I . T . Press. Z I P F , G . K . ( 1 9 4 9 ) Human Behaviour and the Principle of Least Effort, Wesley Press. CHAPTER 2 W h a t is Planning? IN the previous chapter we have noted the importance to man of communication between himself and his fellow men, between man and his environment as a whole; this communication, this flow of information, results in a stock of messages : a store of knowledge of the world, which is used as a basis for man's actions. Kenneth Boulding defined this, "the sum of what we think we know and what makes us behave the way we do", as The Image, and Miller, Galanter and Pribram have organised the concept of the Image as the basis of their book : Plans and the Structure of Behaviour (1960) : "The Image is (a man's) knowledge of the world.