By Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu
This book provides the 1st documentation of Nzadi, a Bantu language spoken by way of fishermen alongside the Kasai River within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). it's the manufactured from vast research via the authors and individuals in box tools and workforce learn classes on the collage of California, Berkeley, and contains ten chapters overlaying the segmental phonology, tone method, morphology, and sentence constitution, by way of appendices at the Nzadi humans and background and on Proto-Bantu to Nzadi sound alterations. additionally integrated are 3 texts and a lexicon of over 1100 entries, together with a couple of fish species. ahead of this paintings, Nzadi had now not even been pointed out within the literature, and at present nonetheless has no access as a language or dialect within the Ethnologue. Of specific curiosity within the examine of Nzadi is its substantial grammatical simplification, leading to buildings really diverse from these of canonical Bantu languages. even supposing Nzadi has misplaced many of the inherited agglutinative morphology, there are nonetheless recognizable classification prefixes on nouns and a reflex of noun type contract in genitive structures. different components of specific curiosity are human/number contract, tense-aspect-mood marking, non-subject relative clause buildings, and WH query formation. This succinct, yet entire grammar offers large assurance of the phonological, grammatical and semantic homes that may be of strength curiosity not just to Bantuists, Africanists and people attracted to this region of the DRC, but in addition to typologists, basic linguists, and scholars of linguistics.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo
5% have the shape CVC or CVVC. 24] labial alveolar velar stops nasals liquids p m t n l k N r As seen, the typical codas in Nzadi are either voiceless stops, nasals, or liquids. 24] is that two consonants now appear that cannot be onsets: /N/ and (trilled) /r/. 11] that CVVC stems can end only in /m/, /n/ or /r/. 27] nasals -N > -m 27 liquids > -n > -l back vowels > stops -r > -k > -p > -t front vowels u > a > ç > i > e aa > uu > çç > ii > EE > E As seen, the three nasal consonants occur the most frequently in codas, followed by the two liquids, and the three stops.
25] /mi ê bva + é/ /mi ê dììr + ´/ /mi ê sçnka + ´/ ! ! sç@nka ‘I am falling’ ‘I am watching’ ‘I am writing’ (< é sç&nka) As seen, the progressive is characterized by a HL /ê/ marker preposed to the verb + a H tone suffix which combines to make a LH rising tone on the root syllable. 3). As expected /ê/ undergoes absorption before the L of the verb stem. This produces a H-LH sequence in the first two examples. H-L output in the last example. Since pronouns often have LH tone, they too undergo the downstep contour simplification rule: fòtó m"‡` ‘my photograpph’ vs.
In Nzadi, although not written in the orthography, a few open syllable stems beginning with /m/ or /n/ have noticeable vowel nasalization. 2. /m/ : /n-/ : mwa& o-mwE@ nwí o-nç@ o-nwô [mwãÛ] [o-mwEè)] [nw"‚ê] [o-nç)]è [o-nwo)Ê] ‘small’ ‘to show’ ‘bee’ ‘to drink’ ‘to rain’ cf. mwa&àn o-mç@n ‘child’ ‘to see’ Consonants Compared to vowels, there are surprisingly few processes affecting consonants. The main alternation concerns the effect that a nasal has on a following consonant. 23], where it was observed that the postnasal consonant must be a stop or affricate.